- Science

A close up process of testing rocket system on NASA’s Orion spacecraft

NASA is developing a new generation spacecraft to send astronauts back to the Moon again.

In it, NASA is conducting a series of tests to ensure the Orion spacecraft is ready to send astronauts on Earth’s satellite successfully.

Recently, NASA has tested Orion’s rocket system and a video recording the testing process surprised viewers.

On August 5, NASA tested the rocket system at NASAS White Sands Testing Facility in New Mexico.

Accordingly, the propulsion system of the Orion ship constantly injects fuel and creates jet stream for 12 minutes. Although the rocket system did not leave the ground, the researchers successfully recreated and successfully simulated the most difficult situations that a spacecraft engine could encounter after launch.

“This is also the most demanding test for pressurized systems, fuel tanks, valves and other components,” said Josh Freeh, deputy director of the Orion’s service module. The international team has collaborated and conducted this test for months. “

The experiment mimics what scientists call an orbital cancellation state. If the provisional phase fails to send the spacecraft to the Moon as expected, Orion will activate the engine from a service module provided by the ESA to temporarily lift to a safe orbit. This NAS B Plan will give scientists more time to find the next solution, which is to find ways to go forward or back to Earth.

Accordingly, the scientists tested the activation of Orion’s main engine and eight other auxiliary engines at the same time.

Jim Withrow, project manager, said: “Testing at White Sands has helped us understand many things and how to operate the service module’s propulsion system.” This test launch is one of a series of tests conducted by NASA so far. In the coming months, NASA will continue to simulate backup modes and other dangerous flight conditions.

The Orion spacecraft’s service module provides space maneuverability and provides the astronauts with essentials, water, nitrogen and oxygen. Kennedy Space Center engineers are involved in finalizing the crew module for the Artemis 1 mission and service module before sending the Orion spacecraft to NASA’s Plum Brook station in Ohio to test it. Experience the environment in space this fall.

After completing this stage, the Orion spacecraft will be returned to the Kennedy Space Center to complete and assemble with the Space Launch System (SLS).

A single castrated cat can massacre an entire ecosystem

Coastal Mandurah city, Australia: The scene of the massacre only remains fragments of intact bodies. The victim’s chest was torn off and the heads mysteriously disappeared.

Claire Greenwell, a biologist at Murdoch University, joined five other locals. They set up a secret surveillance area overnight. A neighbor lent a mobile home to Greenwell as a base.

Their only goal is a cat.

Yes, a cat has been responsible for massacre in Mandurah bird sanctuary. It is a fenced area to attract lovely native gulls like Fairy tern (Sternula nereis) for nesting.

Gulls usually do not nest near human habitation areas, but thanks to the hospitality of Mandurah residents, they have begun to come here and breed. It was a success story, until a cat appeared.

According to research by Greenwell and colleagues published in Animal magazine, a single cat in Mandurah has been harassing the nesting area of ​​220 gulls for weeks. It was responsible for the deaths of 6 adult gulls and 40 juveniles.

Clearly, this conservation area is no longer safe. All the gulls have left, leaving a land with only empty nests, fragments of corpses, dried blood stains and the wrathful regret of the Mandurah residents.

Unusual signs have been recorded since the night of November 18, 2018. City residents were awakened by the chaotic cry of gulls. A white cat was chased out of the reserve.

Days after that, Greenwell began to find dead birds, essentially just the remains of their remains. Many other birds were also missing. The death of an 8-day-old young gull dealt a blow to Greenwell. It is also the first young born in Mandurah sanctuary.

“Every day, I watch that little seagull grow,” she said. “The seagull parents look for their children. They don’t leave their home like other neighbors, because they are waiting for their children to come back.”

At the same time, Mandurah residents caught a cat prowling the area. It has white fur. Over the next few days, the seagull continued to be killed or disappear, and animal tracking cameras confirmed the cat’s presence.

One resident even took a picture from his balcony. In it, the white cat appeared in the reserve and it seemed to be eating something. And so the residents decided to get involved.

On the night of December 1, 2018, Greenwell and 5 others at Mandurah took turns guarding the gull sanctuary. The white cat arrived at 7 o’clock, they chased it away. The cat returned at midnight. Again the watchman chased it.

The third time the cat returned, Greenwall’s eyes saw him rushing towards the gulls. It was clear that the guards chased after the cat, but for half a mile it quickly disappeared behind a coastal bush.

The group returned to the area and they continued to guard each other on the second night. After that, Mandurah City hired a security guard to take over the mission for a few days. When the cat did not appear again, they thought the danger was over.

But not! The cat has returned, many gulls continue to be discovered. Greenwell observed another strange phenomenon. Adult gulls no longer spend time on the ground looking after their children.

They also no longer fly around in large groups above the nesting area, to search and chase predators. “Basically, this area has fallen,” Greenwell said. By mid-December, all the gulls left, all the babies were dead.

It only happened for a few weeks. During that time, there were two other domestic cats in the area. But there is no evidence that these two cats hunted gulls.

When they were caught out of the area, the deaths of gulls continued to appear. There were no cameras capturing the moment of any other cat in the area besides the white cat, not even the locals saw it.

“All the people were very angry,” said Greenwell. Mandurah residents were so concerned about the gulls that they would wake up every night to check if the birds were okay.

Last month, the city council issued a bill on cat ownership to consult for six weeks. The new law will require owners to have a license if they have more than two cats.

Mandurah will also ban cats in some nature reserves and their owners will be fined $ 200 for failing to comply with the licensing rules or they let their cats be annoying.

All these moves occurred at a time when the Australian government was trying to kill 2 million feral cats by trapping, shooting and even releasing poisonous sausages. This is necessary to rebalance the ecosystem and save other native animals on the continent.

Birds, mammals and reptiles in Australia have evolved over millions of years without the appearance of cats. This makes them especially vulnerable when cats come and start showing off their skilled hunting instincts.

Cats are a factor in promoting the extinction of most of the 34 extinct animals in Australia, according to John Woinarski, a conservation biologist at the Recovery Center for Endangered Animals.

In Mandurah, the white cat was finally captured on December 12. According to local newspapers, it was gently killed by the city, or death. The cat has no tracking chip and no necklace. But it has been castrated.

In the United States, where pro-cat groups create more pressure than Ausatralia, they have come up with a policy that is still controversial. The policy is called the Trap-Castration-Release (TNR), in which wild cats are captured and castrated, then returned naturally to a humane cat population reduction.

Bird supporters protest, saying the policy was ineffective. By castrating cats does not help them become more gentle. In any case, castrated cats are released to the wild as usual, Greenwell said.

In Ausatralia, the country has decided to place more importance on native wildlife than cats. So they caught wild cats, killed them or killed them, ignoring the fact that not all cats are as destructive as the white cats in Mandurah.

“Cats can be quite benign,” Woinarski said. “Some cats are very good prey, but others are not so excellent.”

But in many other parts of the world, there have also been reports of a single cat being able to exert a huge and disproportionate impact on bird populations. And cats sometimes kill beyond their food needs.

A study of stray cats on Jekyll Island off Georgia found that cats ate only 83% of the prey they killed. The abandoning of the gulls in Mandurah to the entire nesting area also suggests the impact of a single cat can far exceed the birds they kill.

“Whether cats actually cause deaths or not, they can provoke fear in their small prey population,” said Michael Cove, a biologist from the University of North Carolina. know.

For example, at Florida Keys, a wood mouse population is also threatened by wild cats. These mice have a habit of nesting with large branches, which is how they got their name.

But since the cats appeared in the area, the nests of wooden mice have declined significantly.

“Imagine, if you were this small rodent, normally you would forgive a big, bulky tree,” Cove said. “That will make it easier for you to detect, my grandfather in this bush. As you can imagine, then you will easily fall prey to other animals.”

The Cove study tracked even after cats were taken out of the Florida Keys. The population of wooden mice now has returned to normal development.

Indeed, the presence of a cat or even a single cat is enough for an entire ecosystem to be unbalanced. The question now is how to solve the problem?

Thousands of years have passed, ever since cats took advantage of humans to invade the world, have we ever realized that we have been too tolerant of them?

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