The might of the great Inca empire was partly built on a cruel and fearsome terror power, which the four found remains have shown.
Archaeologists have discovered what they describe as “something wrong” in the old village at the foot of a hill in the majestic Andes mountains. The village belongs to the famous Inca empire (also known as Incan or Inka).
Those are four human skulls. Usually, the remains are conspicuous in ancient settlements. However, 4 skulls in the ruins of the village called Iglesia Colorada have some strange holes, located in the middle of what looks like … an old garbage dump with many food debris and ceramic pieces thrown away from ancient times. Moreover, archaeologists found no bones belonging to the rest of the body, no traces of tombs and no burial objects – very unusual for Inca customs.
The team, from the National Museum of Natural History in Santiago, measured bone age and identified four skulls as young women with low bone density, indicating severe malnutrition. Three skulls belonged to 16-30 year old girls, while the other was a girl aged 11-13 years old.
The subsequent research process gave a very tragic explanation. These young women are enemies of the region’s rulers. They were killed, their skulls strung into a lurid rope used in rituals. That’s why there are strange holes in the skull. Numerous marks on the bones show a brutal act of slaughtering the skin and skin to remove the skull.
According to the authors, it was the “terrorist power” that the Inca dynasty created to overpower the people and threaten the enemies. Only the remains of women used could be for the sake of men – inherent in labor and fighting – to be left alive as slaves.
Thankfully, that “terrorist power” was only encapsulated in a dynasty, not spread throughout the empire. Inca civilization developed from the early 13th century and flourished during the following century.
The findings have just been published in the Latin American scientific journal Antiquity.
Takigyo – Meditating under a waterfall
The meditation of Japanese brings a sense of refreshment and calmness, bringing people into the nature.
Takigyo is a traditional Japanese meditation method. The meditator stands at the foot of the waterfall, praying while the stream is pouring straight on him.
The required costume is “Shiro-Shozoku”, a white robe for the deceased. When the waterfall came down from above, the person standing below was in a state of calm, breathing steadily and praying. Depending on the water level, state of health, meditation time can last from one to 20 minutes, or longer.
Besides praying for peace and happiness in life, Takigyo meditation also has a profound meaning to help people become closer and more connected with nature. Since ancient times, Japanese people are well aware of the inseparable relationship between nature and people. Nature provides abundant food for mankind. Natural disasters, floods threaten human life also brought by nature.
The first thing to do when you begin meditation is to lean forward, your hands touching your chest as a greeting. When coming to the waterfall basin, the meditator must kneel, use a wooden spoon to scoop water on his shoulders, saying his full name. Next to stand up, folded his hands in front of his chest, bowed three times to the center, left, right of the waterfall. Then turn your back to the waterfall, let the waterfall run down the right shoulder first, left shoulder after, to the neck, then the body.
When coming into contact with water, you should avoid falling into the top of the waterfall because it is a “grave”. When meditating and praying, try to focus on keeping your breathing steady.
While meditating, the outside monks recited the mantra Hannya Shingyo (Mantra of the Heart). The person standing under the waterfall is the male, the mantra is recited 7 times, the female meditator will recite 3 times. Just reciting, the monks counted 108 beads on the wrist. In Buddhism, the number 108 represents the human disturbing 108. It is believed that these 108 afflictions will be removed at the end of the year.
Before meditation, need to warm up the body carefully, do exercises to develop abdominal muscles, get enough sleep. People with back, neck and shoulder pain, heart problems, being drunk should not take part in meditation.
Takiyo Meditation is not only popular with Japanese people, it is also experienced by many foreigners at mountain temples in Japan.
A visitor meditates under a waterfall at Izurusan Manganji Temple, Tochigi Prefecture, sharing as being energized after meditation. “In the first 20 seconds, the water was very cold, I felt the drops of water pounding on me. Gradually, my spirit was at ease, my mood improved markedly. I would sign up for meditation again,” this guest said.
Monk Ayabe said he used to go to the mountain to meditate at least once a month, once an hour, including winter. He said that feeling refreshed and calm after meditation would last three days to a week afterwards.